VOLATILE BIOMARKERS AND CURCUMINOID INDUCED CELL DEATH ASSOCIATED VOLATILE SIGNATURES OF MULTICELLULAR GASTRIC CANCER TUMOR SPHEROIDS.
Gokula Krishnan Ramachandran, Chen Hua Yeow, Wei Peng Yong
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Gastric cancer has the highest mortality rate among all other cancers due to the lack of non-invasive and early detection methods. Various studies show volatile signatures of the cancer cells can be used as biomarkers for cancer detection. In this study we studied four gastric cancer cells-lines (SNU 484, IST 1, MKN 28, NUGC 3) and one normal gastric cell line (HS 738), for the identification of gastric cancer specific volatile biomarkers. We developed three dimensional multicellular spheroids of these cell lines and extracted the volatile compounds produced by these spheroids using salting out method. These extracted volatile compounds were identified using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). From these identified volatile compounds, biomarkers of the gastric cancer spheroids were deduced. Prior studies show curcuminoids as potential drug candidate for treating gastric cancer. We intend to decipher the curcuminoid induced volatile signatures of the gastric cancer spheroids. We treated the above mentioned multicellular spheroids with curcuminoids and identified the volatile compounds produced by these spheroids in response to curcuminoid treatment. Among the five cell lines mentioned above, three cell lines namely MKN 28, NUGC 3 and HS 738 (including normal cell line) were resistant to curcuminoid treatment whereas, remaining two cell lines namely SNU 484 and IST 1 were susceptible to the curcuminoid treatment which, led to the cell death. From this study, we deciphered curcuminoid induced cell death associated volatiles. Further, by considering these identified curcuminoid induced cell death associated volatiles as reference, it is possible to access the efficiency of curcuminoid treatment. Our future research direction is performing clinical study to identify the volatile biomarkers from the exhaled breath of the gastric cancer patients which leads to the early detection of gastric cancer via simple and non-invasive breath test.