DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF INDIVIDUAL SCAFFOLDS FOR BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING VIA 3D BIOPLOTTING
Shenzhen University, China
Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, China
3D bioplotting offers fascinating new possibilities for biomedical applications. In the last years we have designed and developed a number of 3D scaffolds with predesigned structures and functions suitable for tissues engineering application. Here, we presented three types of scaffolds with designed novel structures. First of all, alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with designed pore parameters and core/shell structures were fabricated by using 3D plotting technique and in situ mineralization under mild conditions. In these scaffolds, a layer of nano-HAP, coating the surface of the alginate strands homogeneously and completely. The surface mineralization enhanced the mechanical properties and improved the cell attachment and spreading, as well as supported sustaining protein release. Secondly, novel porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications consisting of hollow alginate fibers are prepared using shell/core plotting nozzles. Such materials open up the possibility to generate biodegradable tissue constructs with a preformed vascular system or can act as matrices for engineering of complex organs or 3D tissue models. In addition, hollow struts packed (HSP) bioceramics scaffolds with designed macropores and multi-oriented hollow channels via a modified coaxial 3D printing strategy. The prepared HSP scaffolds combined high porosity and surface area with impressive mechanical strength. The unique hollow-struts structures of bioceramic scaffolds significantly improved cell attachment and proliferation, and further promoted formation of new bone in the center of scaffolds, indicating that HSP ceramic scaffolds can be used for regeneration of large bone defects. Based on these three presented scaffolds fabricated via 3D bioplotting, we demonstrated that 3D bioplotting technology is not only able to tailor the morphologies, but also able to realize individual structures and functions for application in tissue engineering.