ENGINEERING GRAPHENE OXIDE-BASED NANOFUNCTIONAL SURFACES FOR BIOLOGICAL AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Kenry Kenry, Kian Ping Loh, Chwee Teck Lim
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Graphene oxide (GO) is the oxygenated derivative of two-dimensional (2D) graphene being actively explored for numerous biological and biomedical applications [1, 2]. It is a hydrophilic nanomaterial with different oxygen functional groups decorating its basal planes and peripheries. These oxygen functionalities and aromatic domains enable GO to interact with different biomolecules, such as amino acids, peptides, and proteins [3, 4]. Additionally, through electrostatic interaction or π-π stacking, GO can serve as a preconcentration platform for biomolecules. As such, the exceptional biomolecule adsorption on GO coupled with its large specific surface area and excellent biocompatibility may be utilized for engineering application-specific nanofunctional surfaces. Here, we evaluate the nano-bio interactions between GO and a plethora of biomolecules, including albumin, fibrinogen, insulin, and fibronectin. Several aspects of the GO-biomolecule interactions, specifically, protein adsorption and conformational stability, are investigated. We observe that GO has a high affinity and loading capacity for these biomolecules. In light of the high biomolecular adsorption on GO, we engineer and demonstrate GO-based nanofunctional surfaces for various bioapplications [5, 6], such as antithrombotic coating, cell culture platform, and antimalarial therapy.